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Urs), rats were sacrificed by i.p. injection of pentobarbital (120 mg/kg). Blood and cerebella were harvested immediately. Blood or serum was used to measure glucose, insulin, cholesterol, triglycerides, and free fatty acid levels, as previously described [45,46]. Cerebella were harvested for histopathological, biochemical, and molecular studies. For histopathology, tissue samples were immersion f
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Agent for RNA extraction and QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR Mix were obtained from Qiagen, Inc (Valencia, CA). The AMV 1st Strand cDNAPostnatal day 3 (P3) Long Evans rat pups (mean body weight 10 g) were given 3 alternate day intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injections of 20 g NDEA or vehicle. Upon weaning, male rats (N = 8-10 per group) were pair-fed for 8 weeks with high fat (HFD) or low fat (LFD) chow diets.
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Elated compound, causes neurodegeneration, whereas peripheral treatment causes DM. Hypothesis: Limited early exposures to nitrosamines that are widely present in the environment, enhance the deleterious effects of high fat intake in promoting T2DM and neurodegeneration. Methods: Long Evans rat pups were treated with N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) by i.p. injection, and upon weaning, they were fed wi
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Fasting blood glucose and serum insulin concentrations were significantly lower in the LFD+VEH treated control group compared with all other groups. The mean levels of both serum glucose and insulin were next higher in the LFD+NDEA group, followed by the HFD group. The HFD+NDEA treated rats had the highest mean serum glucose and insulin levels. Correspondingly, serum leptin levels were significant
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Res of AD cerebellar atrophy include, reductions in Purkinje cell population, atrophy of the molecular and granule cell layers [68], increased amyloid deposition and gliosis in the cortex [69]; increased ubiquitin-immunoreactivity in senile plaques and degenerating neurites [70]; extensive abnormalities in dendritic spine density and synaptic structure in vestibulocerebellar, visual, and auditory
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Antibody (1:10000) and Amplex Red soluble fluorophore [79]. Amplex Red fluorescence was measured (Ex 579/Em 595) in a SpectraMax M5 microplate reader (Molecular Devices Corp., Sunnyvale, CA). Negative control reactions included substitutions with nonrelevant primary or secondary antibodies, and omission of primary or secondary antibody. Immunoreactivities were normalized to protein content as dete
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Ed, suggestive of increased myelin degeneration, in these two groups. Ubiquitin immunoreactivity was virtually undetectable in control and NDEA-exposed cerebella (Figs. 1-D1, 1-D2), but slightly increased in the Purkinje and granule cell layers of HFD-fed cerebella (Fig. 1-D3). Rats exposed to NDEA, and also chronically fed with the HFD, had prominently increased ubiquitin immunoreactivity in Purk
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Agent for RNA extraction and QuantiTect SYBR Green PCR Mix were obtained from Qiagen, Inc (Valencia, CA). The AMV 1st Strand cDNAPostnatal day 3 (P3) Long Evans rat pups (mean body weight 10 g) were given 3 alternate day intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injections of 20 g NDEA or vehicle. Upon weaning, male rats (N = 8-10 per group) were pair-fed for 8 weeks with high fat (HFD) or low fat (LFD) chow diets.

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