S described elsewhere [79]. For molecular and biochemical assays, cerebella were snap-frozen in a dry ice-methanol bath and stored at -80 . We studied cerebellar tissue because the cerebellum: 1) requires intact insulin/IGF signaling to maintain its structural and functional integrity [80,81]; 2) is severely damaged by i.c.-STZ mediated neurodegeneration [19,22]; 3) although relatively spared, it